“The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.”– National Geographic
Human civilization has evolved over thousands of years, with the development of different societies, cultures, religions, and technologies. The earliest known civilizations can be traced back to around 3500 BC in the Near East and Mediterranean regions, as evidence of organized cities and complex societies have been found.
From there, human civilization slowly spread throughout the world, with the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans creating some of the most advanced societies of their time.
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. Its sites were discovered in the 1920s.
The civilization flourished between the years of 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE, and was noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
Sources to know Indus Valley Civilization
1• Archaeological sites, artifacts, and excavations
The Indus Valley Civilization has left behind a wealth of archaeological evidence, including numerous archaeological sites, artifacts, and excavations. These artifacts provide a detailed look into the life and culture of this ancient civilization.
The most famous archaeological site associated with the Indus Valley Civilization is the city of Mohenjo-daro, located in the modern-day Pakistani province of Sindh. This ancient city was a major center of the Indus Valley Civilization and provides a wealth of information about the culture and lifestyle of the people who lived there.
Other important archaeological sites associated with the Indus Valley Civilization include Harappa, Ganweriwala, and Lothal. These sites provide further insight into the life of this ancient civilization.
In addition to archaeological sites, artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization are also an important source of information. These artifacts include pottery, seals, and other items made from stone, copper, and other materials. These artifacts provide a unique look into the daily life of the people of this civilization.
Excavations in various parts of the Indus Valley have also uncovered a variety of items such as jewelry, tools, weapons, and food remains. These provide further evidence of the sophistication and complexity of the Indus Valley Civilization.
2• Ancient texts and inscriptions
Ancient texts and inscriptions to know Indus Valley Civilization have been found in the form of seals, pottery, tools, and other artifacts that were discovered during archaeological excavations in the area. These ancient artifacts provide a fascinating insight into the lives of the people who lived in the region at the time. They tell us about the trade, religion, and social structure of the Indus Valley Civilization.
They also give us a glimpse into the technology and engineering of the time, with evidence of sophisticated drainage systems, pottery, and other tools used for farming and manufacturing. The many ancient inscriptions found in this region also offer a valuable source of information about the language, writing, and art of the people who lived in the Indus Valley thousands of years ago.
3• Ancient art and sculptures
The Indus Valley Civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, and its art and sculptures are some of the most important artifacts to uncover its history. Ancient artifacts such as pottery, seals, figurines, and sculptures provide insight into the sophisticated culture and technology of the Indus Valley people. These artifacts, in combination with archaeological evidence, have allowed researchers to learn about the social structure, religious beliefs, and daily life of the Indus Valley people.
The most common artifacts from the Indus Valley are pottery and seals. The pottery found from this civilization is often decorated with geometric designs, animals, or religious symbols. Seals are small stone objects engraved with animal motifs and symbols that were used to mark property or documents. Figurines made of terracotta and bronze depict people in various activities including dancing and ritual ceremonies.
Sculptures are some of the most iconic artifacts of the Indus Valley Civilization. Many of these sculptures depict single figures of humans or animals, while others depict more complex scenes. These sculptures are often made of stone and are highly detailed, providing insight into the religious beliefs of the Indus Valley people.
Overall, ancient art and sculptures play an important role in understanding the culture of the Indus Valley Civilization. By examining various artifacts, researchers can gain a more comprehensive understanding of this ancient society.
4• Ancient written documents
Ancient written documents to know Indus Valley Civilization include seals, pottery, figurines, tools, and other archaeological artifacts. These artifacts are believed to have been made by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization and contain important information about their language, history, and culture. They are also important for understanding the trade networks of the ancient world.
Seals, for example, have been found to have been used for trade and for identification. Pottery has also been found to be a major source of information about the Indus Valley Civilization, as it provides insight on the daily life of the people, the technologies they used, and the art they created.
Figurines, tools, and other artifacts are also important sources of knowledge, as they provide evidence of the technologies and crafts the people of the Indus Valley Civilization had access to.
5• Ancient coins and pottery fragments
Ancient coins and pottery fragments to know Indus Valley Civilization have been found in archaeological sites across the region, allowing experts to piece together the story of this lost civilization.
The Indus Valley Civilization is believed to have lasted from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and was one of the most advanced civilizations of its time. Its cities were well-planned with intricate drainage systems, and many of the artifacts found in the ruins of the cities show evidence of a sophisticated trading network. These artifacts, along with archaeological evidence, have allowed experts to paint a picture of a complex and advanced ancient civilization.
6• Ancient maps and diagrams
Ancient maps and diagrams to know Indus Valley Civilization were found in the form of terracotta tablets, stone seals, pottery with inscriptions, and bronze tools. These artifacts provide us with a glimpse into the life and culture of this ancient civilization.
The terracotta tablets and seals were inscribed with symbols which provided insight into the society’s writing system and its use for administrative and religious purposes. The pottery and bronze tools revealed the level of sophistication and craftsmanship that the civilization had achieved. All of these artifacts provide us with an understanding of the Indus Valley Civilization and its place in the ancient world.
7• Ancient literature and writings
The earliest known writing in the Indian subcontinent is the Indus script, which is found on seals and small tablets discovered at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, two major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Although the script has not been deciphered yet, it appears to be a complex system of symbols and signs. The other forms of ancient literature that help us understand the Indus Valley Civilization are Vedic Sanskrit literature and the Puranas.
The Vedic literature, which mainly consists of hymns, contains references to various aspects of the Indus Valley culture, from its social and political structure to its religious beliefs and practices. The Puranas, a collection of ancient texts which describe the history of the various gods, also provide valuable insight into the Indus Valley Civilization.
8• Historical accounts from other civilizations
• Historical accounts from other civilizations to know Indus Valley Civilization include references from the Mesopotamian civilization, from the ancient Egyptians, from the Greeks, from the Chinese, and from the Persians. These accounts provide a glimpse into the culture, religion, and architecture of the Indus Valley Civilization.
9• Geological and geographical information
The Indus Valley Civilization is believed to have flourished between the years of 3300 BCE and 1300 BCE and is known to have been located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, in what is now modern-day Pakistan and northwest India.
The Indus Valley was situated between the two rivers, the Indus and the Ghaggar-Hakra, and was surrounded by the Aravalli and Vindhya mountain ranges. The civilization had a unique urban landscape, with large cities such as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, as well as hundreds of smaller settlements.
The cities were characterized by well-planned streets, extensive brick and stone architecture, and elaborate water and waste management systems.
The people of the Indus Valley Civilization were known to have practiced a variety of crafts and trades, such as weaving and metallurgy, and were likely the first to use bronze in the subcontinent. They had a complex religion and a writing system that remains undeciphered.
10• Anthropological studies of the region
Anthropological studies of the region to know Indus Valley Civilization have revealed that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization were organized into hierarchical societies. They had a well-developed system of writing and a complex system of irrigation which allowed them to cultivate a variety of crops.
They also had a strong trading system, which enabled them to trade with other cultures in the region. The Indus Valley Civilization was a highly advanced and complex society, with a culture that was both unique and influential.
Major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization
• Mohenjo-Daro, Sindh, Pakistan
• Harappa, Punjab, Pakistan
• Dholavira, Gujarat, India
• Kalibangan, Rajasthan, India
• Lothal, Gujarat, India
• Rakhigarhi, Haryana, India
• Banawali, Haryana, India
• Surkotada, Gujarat, India
• Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
How did the Indus Valley Civilization develop?
The Indus Valley Civilization developed over several centuries, beginning around 3300 BCE in the western part of the Indian subcontinent. This civilization was the earliest to develop in the region and was characterized by its urban planning, sophisticated drainage systems, and monuments.
Its cities were well-planned, with streets laid out in a grid pattern and houses built of baked brick. The Indus Valley Civilization was largely agricultural, with most people living in small villages and towns. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization developed advanced techniques in metallurgy, pottery, and weaving.
They also developed a writing system, though its meaning has yet to be fully deciphered. This civilization declined around 1900 BCE, likely due to a decline in trade and climate change.
Characteristics/Achievements of Indus Valley Civilization
1• Developed an organized form of writing
This form of writing was known as the Harappan script, and it is believed to have been used for administrative and economic purposes. Scholars have been unable to decipher the script, but it is believed to have been an early form of the Sanskrit language. This form of writing was used throughout the Indus Valley civilization, which was a major cultural center of the ancient world.
It is believed to have been used to record trade, manage administrative tasks, and even keep records of religious and cultural practices. The Harappan script has been found on seals, pottery, tools, and other artifacts from the Indus Valley civilization, providing insight into the lifestyles of the people who lived there.
2• Established a complex trade network
The complex trade network in Indus Valley Civilization extended to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf, as well as to the Arabian Sea, to northern India and central Asia. Short- and long-distance trade networks were utilized to distribute goods such as spices, jewelry, textiles, and tools.
Merchants used boats and carts to transport goods, and trade was regulated through the use of weights and measures. This trade network provided the foundation for the economic prosperity of the Indus Valley Civilization.
3• Constructed a well-planned metropolis with advanced drainage systems
The Indus Valley Civilization is known for its advanced urban planning, with well-planned streets, drainage systems, and protective walls. Buildings were constructed with baked-brick walls, and some were two or three stories high. Streets were laid out in a grid pattern, with the intersecting streets at right angles.
The city of Mohenjo-daro had a complex system of underground drainage which carried wastewater from the city to a nearby river. This system is considered to be one of the most advanced of its time.
4• Used a variety of tools made of bronze, stone and copper
The Indus Valley Civilization used a variety of tools made of bronze, stone and copper in a wide range of activities, from agriculture to construction and even warfare. They had tools for harvesting, plowing, digging, and other agricultural activities.
Copper was used to make various tools such as axes, saws, chisels, and drills. They also used stone tools for cutting, grinding, and drilling. These tools were used in construction activities such as cutting stone blocks for building structures, carving sculptures, and even for making jewelry. The tools were also used in warfare, with weapons such as spears and swords being made from bronze and stone.
5• Developed a system of weights and measures
The Indus Valley Civilization also developed a system of weights and measures, which was used to measure length, mass, and capacity. The Indus weight system was based on a binary system of weights and was highly accurate. The smallest weight was about 7.5 grams and the largest was about 8.8 kilograms. The Indus Valley Civilization also developed the first known writing system, which was used to record trade transactions.
6• Created terracotta sculptures, pottery and seal
Terracotta sculptures, pottery and seals were some of the most iconic artifacts created during the Indus Valley Civilization. These sculptures were usually made from clay and were decorated with intricate designs, often depicting animals or gods. Pottery was used for both everyday and ceremonial purposes and often displayed a variety of decorative patterns.
Seals were also produced in large quantities and contained a variety of symbols and inscriptions, often thought to be a form of written language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. These artifacts are just some of the many pieces of evidence that show the advanced level of craftsmanship and sophistication of the Indus Valley Civilization.
7• Developed an advanced irrigation system
The advanced irrigation system in the Indus Valley Civilization was a sophisticated and highly efficient water management system that allowed the region to become one of the most developed and prosperous civilizations of ancient times. It included a network of reservoirs and canals that distributed water to numerous settlements throughout the region.
The system also incorporated sophisticated measurement and regulation of water, as well as the ability to use it to support an extensive agricultural system. The irrigation system in the Indus Valley Civilization was an example of early engineering and planning, and it allowed the people of the region to become successful in their endeavors.
8• Utilized a grid system for efficient city planning
The grid system was based around the main roads and streets that ran through the cities, which were often lined with drainage systems and water systems. The streets were typically around 30-40 feet wide, and the city was divided into blocks, each block typically containing a group of houses and other structures. The grid system allowed for easy access to transportation, goods and services, as well as providing a sense of order and organization to the cities.
9• Used a sophisticated system of water management
The Indus Valley Civilization used a sophisticated system of water management, which included an elaborate network of dams, canals and reservoirs. These canals were used to irrigate the land and provide water for drinking and bathing. The dams were also used to regulate the water supply and prevent flooding. This sophisticated system of water management allowed the Indus Valley Civilization to prosper and flourish.
10• Constructed a complex network of road
The complex network of roads in the Indus Valley Civilization was an impressive feat for the time, as it enabled people to travel from one part of the civilization to another with relative ease. The roads were well-constructed, featuring brick and stone paving, and were lined with drainage systems.
The roads were also connected to cities, with each city having its own entrance gate. The roads also had signposts and milestones to indicate distances, making it easier to navigate.
11.Main religion of the Indus Valley Civilization
The main religion of the Indus Valley Civilization is believed to have been a form of Hinduism. However, there is also evidence of the worship of a number of other deities, including female goddesses and a fertility god. Archaeological remains from the Indus Valley also suggest the existence of a variety of rituals and practices. These include the worship of natural elements such as fire, sun, water, and mountains. Other religious practices that may have been practiced include animal sacrifice, ritual bathing, and the use of amulets and charms.
What was the main religion of the Indus Valley Civilization?
The main religion of the Indus Valley Civilization is unknown, although evidence suggests the presence of a pantheon of gods, including a female fertility goddess and a horned deity. Some evidence points to the worship of a single, primary deity, as well as a cult of the dead.
Terracotta seals depicting a figure seated in a meditation-like pose have been found, suggesting the presence of practices related to yoga and meditation. The presence of fire altars and animal sacrifices also suggest the worship of Vedic gods.
What was the writing system used by the Indus Valley Civilization?
The Indus Valley Civilization used an early form of writing called the Indus script. It is one of the earliest known systems of writing, and it is still undeciphered. It is believed that the Indus script was pictographic or ideographic in nature, with a few symbols representing whole words or ideas. It is unclear how many symbols were used in the script, but scholars estimate about 400 symbols.
What were the major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization?
The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization included Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kot Diji, and Kalibangan. These cities were spread across modern-day Pakistan and northwestern India, and are considered to have been the most advanced cities of their time. They featured sophisticated architecture, planned cities, and evidence of trade with other civilizations. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have been identified as two of the earliest urban settlements in the world.
What type of artifacts have been found from the Indus Valley Civilization?
Many artifacts have been found from the Indus Valley Civilization, including pottery, sculptures, seals, tools, jewelry, and coins. These artifacts provide us with evidence of the culture, economy, and lifestyle of the ancient civilization. Archaeological excavations have also revealed the remains of buildings and cities, which provide us with an understanding of the engineering and architecture of the civilization.
What was the climate of the Indus Valley Civilization?
The climate of the Indus Valley Civilization was predominantly a hot, humid subtropical climate. During the hot season temperatures could reach up to 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit), and during the cold season temperatures could drop to as low as 5 degrees Celsius (41 degrees Fahrenheit). The monsoon season brought heavy rainfall to the region, which was necessary for the cultivation of crops.
How did the Indus Valley Civilization develop?
The Indus Valley Civilization developed over a period of thousands of years, beginning as early as 3300 BC. The civilization was highly advanced and organized, featuring two major cities, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, and smaller settlements located in the Indus Valley and its surrounding areas.
Evidence suggests that the civilization was highly organized, with a complex system of government, and the development of city planning and architecture. Trade was an important part of the Indus Valley Civilization, with evidence of trade with other ancient civilizations, such as Mesopotamia and Persia.
The Indus Valley Civilization was also advanced in its use of technology, including bronze tools and weapons, and the development of an irrigation system. The civilization was eventually destroyed by environmental and climatic changes around 1500 BC.
What language did the Indus Valley Civilization speak?
The exact language spoken by the Indus Valley Civilization is unknown. Scholars have attempted to decipher the script used by the Indus Valley Civilization, however the language remains a mystery. Some scholars have suggested it may have been a form of the Dravidian language family, which is still spoken in the region today. However, this has yet to be proven.
What was the role of trade in the Indus Valley Civilization?
Trade was an important factor in the Indus Valley Civilization. The civilization had a complex trade network that spanned much of the region. Goods were traded over vast distances, including ivory, lapis lazuli, and other precious metals.
Trade routes connected the civilization to other parts of the ancient world, including to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. This allowed for the exchange of goods and ideas, which helped to shape the beliefs, culture and economy of the Indus Valley Civilization. In addition to goods, knowledge and ideas were also exchanged between the various cultures, which had a lasting impact on the region.
What were the major achievements of the Indus Valley Civilization?
The Indus Valley Civilization was an incredibly advanced civilization that flourished in the region of the Indus River Valley from around 3300 BCE to 1700 BCE. This civilization is considered one of the oldest and most influential in the world, and its major achievements were impressive.
One of the major achievements of the Indus Valley Civilization was their development of a sophisticated system of writing. This writing system was used to record the laws and customs of the civilization, and it is thought to be the earliest form of writing in the world.
The Indus Valley Civilization was also renowned for its urban planning and engineering capabilities. They built some of the earliest cities in the world, as well as a complex system of drainage and irrigation. This allowed them to develop and sustain their agricultural system, which was essential for their survival and success.
Finally, the Indus Valley Civilization was also known for its impressive achievements in art and craftsmanship. This included the production of seals and figurines made of stone, metal, and pottery, as well as the development of a wide range of tools, weapons, and jewelry. All of these items were decorated with intricate designs and patterns, which show the advanced level of artistry achieved by the people of this civilization.
How did the Indus Valley Civilization decline?
The exact cause of the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization has been debated by scholars for centuries, but some theories suggest that a combination of environmental changes, such as a decrease in rainfall, and the arrival of new groups of people, such as the Aryans, were the main causes.
It is also possible that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization migrated to other areas of India, or were gradually assimilated into the new cultures. Whatever the cause, the Indus Valley Civilization declined around 1900 BCE.